There are four types of osteoporosis: primary, secondary, osteogenesis imperfecta, and idiopathic juvenile.

Osteoporosis Tool

Primary osteoporosis

Primary osteoporosis is the most common type of osteoporosis. It is more common in women than men. A person reaches peak bone mass (density) at about age 30. After that, the rate of bone loss slowly increases, while the rate of bone building decreases. Whether a person develops osteoporosis depends on the thickness of the bones in early life as well as health, diet, and physical activity at all ages.

In women, accelerated bone loss usually begins after monthly menstrual periods stop. This happens when a woman’s production of estrogen slows down (usually between the ages of 45 and 55). In men, gradual bone thinning typically starts at about 45 to 50 years of age, when a man’s production of testosterone slows down. Osteoporosis usually does not have an effect on people until they are 60 or older. Women are usually affected at an earlier age than men, because they start out with lower bone mass.

Osteoporosis Bone Density

Secondary osteoporosis

Secondary osteoporosis has the same symptoms as primary osteoporosis. But it occurs as a result of having certain medical conditions, such as hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or leukemia. It may also occur as a result of taking medicines known to cause bone breakdown, such as oral or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (if used for more than 6 months), too high a dose of thyroid replacement, or aromatase inhibitors (used to treat breast cancer). Secondary osteoporosis can occur at any age.

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare form of osteoporosis that is present at birth. Osteogenesis imperfecta causes bones to break for no apparent reason.

Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis

Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis is rare. It occurs in children between the ages of 8 and 14 or during times of rapid growth. There is no known cause for this type of osteoporosis, in which there is too little bone formation or excessive bone loss. This condition increases the risk of fractures.

Prevention is Better Than Cure

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Osteoporosis is a very common disorder affecting the skeleton. In a patient with osteoporosis, the bones begin losing their minerals and support beams, leaving the skeleton brittle and prone to fractures. About 80 percent of people with osteoporosis are women. This is in part because their bone mass is generally less than men, and women tend to live longer than men.

Bone fractures caused by osteoporosis have become very costly. Half of all bone fractures are related to osteoporosis. A person with a hip fracture has a 20 percent chance of dying as a result of the fracture within six months due to other complicating medical conditions such as pneumonia. Many people who have a fracture related to osteoporosis spend considerable time in the hospital and in rehabilitation. Often, they need to spend some time in a nursing home.

WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?

Osteoporosis means “Porous Bone”

This happens when your bone loses too much calcium and becomes weak. This is very hard to detect clinically and is usually discovered only after a fracture occurs, or if a person shows reduced height or a humping of the back, or suffers low back pain.

A person with osteoporosis has bones that are brittle and fragile. These fragile bones can break very easily with a simple slip or fall or even with no injury at all.

Both men and women can suffer from osteoporosis, but it is most common in woman after menopause (when the monthly period ends).

WHAT CAUSES OSTEOPOROSIS…?

The bone is a living tissue. When we are young, any loss of bone is easily replaced. At around the age of 30, our bone is easily replaced. However, as we age, less bone is made and more bone is lost.

After menopause your body’s supply of estrogen decreases and the rate of bone loss increases even further. This is why post-menopausal women are more likely to suffer from osteoporosis.

There are also many other factors that contribute to bone loss such as illnesses, medication and lifestyle choices.

RISK FACTORS INCLUDE:

• Non-violent Fracture

• Early Menopause before age 45

• A member of your immediate family who has osteoporosis

• Underweight or undernourished

• Smoking /Drinking too much alcohol

• Not exercising much or not being able to move for a long period of time

• Not enough calcium or vitamin D

• Certain illnesses /medicines

HOW DO PATIENTS FIND OUT IF THEY HAVE OSTEOPOROSIS?

Osteoporosis can be easily detected through a painless procedure called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). This test measures the density or solidness of the bones, known as the bone mineral density or BMD.

It uses a thin, invisible beam of low-dose X-rays through the region of interest (usually the lumbar spine and the hip) via two energy streams.

A reading is derived and is reflected as units gram per cm. this will tell us whether is there any osteoporosis.

WHAT ARE THE PREVENTION /TREATMENT OPTIONS?

Prevention

• Exercise

• Medication

• Calcium / Vitamin D Supplement

Treatment

• Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

-Higher risk with long term usage

• Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERMS)

• Bisphosphonates

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