Common Shoulder Disorders

•             Rotator Cuff Tear and Tendinitis

•             Shoulder Dislocation

•             Adhesive capsulitis/ Frozen Shoulder

•             Bursitis

Treatment

•             Physiotherapy

•             Shock wave therapy

•             Anti-inflammatory Injection

•             Arthroscopy

•             Arthroscopic repair and acromioplasty

WHAT IS A ROTATOR CUFF TEAR?

The rotator cuff is the network of muscles and tendons that forms a covering around the top of the upper arm bone (humerus). The rotator cuff holds the humerus in place in the shoulder joint and enables the arm to rotate.

Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of pain and disability among adults. Most tears occur in the supraspinatus muscle, but other parts of the cuff may be involved.

WHAT IS SHOULDER IMPINGEMENT?

The most common cause of rotator cuff problems is a disorder known as impingement where the cuff impinges against the acromion, which overhangs the rotator cuff. In some people, this space is inadequate to allow the normal smooth gliding movements of the rotator cuff as it moves the arm. Every time they raise an arm, the rotator cuff is pinched between the two bones.

In other cases, impingement is caused by accident or injury. Most often, it occurs with aging. As people grow older, their shoulder muscles and tendons weaken, causing the shoulder joint to become less stable. The space between the upper arm and the acromion narrows. The rotator cuff has less room to move. The increased pressure gradually damages the rotator cuff.

Although the rotator cuff can tear suddenly as a result of a serious injury, most rotator cuff problems develop over time. Over a period of months or years, impingement causes the rotator cuff to become irritated, to tear partially, or to tear completely.

WHAT IS ROTATOR CUFF TENDINITIS?

The term tendinitis refers to chronic irritation, inflammation, or tearing of the rotator cuff that occurs as a result of impingement or overuse. Tendinitis bothers some people for a time and then seems to disappear. Their symptoms vary greatly, depending on several factors, the most important of which is how they use the affected shoulder or shoulders.

Some people with tendinitis also develop calcium deposits or abnormal bone growths called bone spurs. Both can aggravate tendons, contributing to the weakening, partial, or complete tearing of the rotator cuff.

WHAT IS SHOULDER BURSITIS?

A bursa (plural bursae) is a soft, fluid-filled sac that helps to cushion and lubricate joints. In the shoulder, there are bursae located between the rotator cuff and the shoulder blade. When a bursa becomes irritated or inflamed, it causes bursitis. Pain and swelling of the joint often accompany bursitis.

WHAT CAUSES ROTATOR CUFF PROBLEMS?

The most common cause of rotator cuff problems is shoulder impingement, in which there is a narrowing of the gap between a portion of the shoulder blade known as the acromion and the top of the upper arm bone. This causes increased friction and gradually damages the rotator cuff.

Rotator cuff tears can also happen suddenly; for example, when a person tries to lift a heavy object above the head. Repeatedly performing a strenuous task such as throwing a baseball can also damage the rotator cuff. In such cases, the excess strain on the rotator cuff causes one or more tendons to tear.

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