Brief Outline of Wryneck

Wryneck or acute torticollis is a painful neck injury that usually follows a sudden rotational movement of the head. Nerves in the neck are compressed, resulting in muscle spasms, accompanying pain, and loss of movement. Many sports can cause the injury, though it can often arise spontaneously in the morning when waking up. In the first case, the injury is usually joint-related; whilst slow-onset torticollis (as after sleep) is often disc-related.


Anatomy and physiology

Whilst irritation of the discs of the cervical spine, or disc prolapse (rupturing), can lead to the condition, a sudden injury, as during sports activity is usually the result of compression of the nerves in the neck or a sprain in one of the joint facets. Typically, the neck is frozen in one position, often rotated to one side and bend forward by the contraction of the cervical muscles.

Cause of wryneck

Sudden rotation of the head in contact sports. A fall that causes a sudden torsion in the neck. Direct blow to the head, causing sudden twisting.

Signs and symptoms

Pain and stiffness. Loss of motion. Neck may be stuck or frozen in one position.

Complication if left wryneck untreated

Wryneck can worsen, in some cases becoming chronic if ignored. The condition may indicate damage to the cervical vertebrae, cervical discs or associated nerves and joints, requiring medical attention.

Treatment for wryneck

Anti-inflammatory medication and ice. Physiotherapy. Injection.

Rehabilitation and prevention

It is critical to determine the cause of the injury and rule out serious underlying conditions requiring surgery or major medical intervention. Following this, a physical therapist may massage of the cervical vertebrae in order to restore range of motion in the injured neck.

Long-term prognosis

Wryneck usually resolves in a week or less, though the painful spasms can be temporarily debilitating. While a chronic form of the condition exists, for more, full recovery can be expected, barring more serious underlying conditions.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to see our orthopaedic specialist regarding wryneck today.

Brief Outline of Slipped Disc to the neck

Cervical discs are shock-absorbing pads of tissue cushioning bones of the cervical spine. A variety of injuries to these discs can cause pain and hamper movement and flexibility of the neck. Slipped discs occur when the gel-like substance leaks from the disc’s interior, following a split or rupture to the disc. This substance can then exert pressure on the spinal cord or nerves of the cervical spine.

Slipped Disc

Anatomy and physiology

The intervertebral discs absorb shock, facilitate movement, and provide support for the spinal column. Such discs consist of a center region or nucleus pulposus and a surrounding annulus fibrosis separating each segmental vertebra between the cervical spine and thoracic spine.Disc degeneration and / or herniation (disc rupture) can cause injury to the spinal cord or nerve roots.

Cause of Slipped Disc for neck pain

Disc degeneration and loss of elasticity. Repetitive stress, particularly from excessive or improper weight lifting. Sudden, forceful trauma to the cervical vertebrae.

Signs and symptoms

Tingling and weakness. Numbness or pain in the neck, shoulder, arm, or hand. Motor and sensory dysfunction in the affected cervical area.

Complications if left slipped disc unattended

Herniated or slipped discs can impinge on the spinal cord, an extremely delicate structure. Even minor damage to the spinal cord can be serious and is generally not reparable. Ignoring cervical disc injuries can lead to further degeneration and associated pain and mobility loss.

Treatment for slipped disc

  • Discontinue activity causing stress to cervical vertebrae and discs.
  • Physiotherapy
  • Medicines
  • Injection

Rehabilitation and prevention

For most slipped disc injuries, a conservative course of treatment is undertaken. Physical therapy includes stretching, strengthening and proprioceptive exercises and sometimes, efforts to adjust posture. Upper body exercise may help prevent disc hardening and degeneration, while strengthening supporting muscles will lower the risk of rupture.

Long-term prognosis

The majority of slipped or herniated disc injuries improve without recourse to surgery. Most athletes cane expect a full return to normal performance following rest and rehabilitation, though symptoms of the injury occasionally recur and degenerated discs are prone to re-rupturing.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to see our orthopaedic specialist regarding slipped disc today.

Brief outline of whiplash (neck sprain)

Whiplash injury occurs when there is sudden flexion and/or extension of the neck, usually when the athlete is struck from behind during contact sports and the head is rapidly thrown both forward and backward. Soft tissues of the neck including intervertebral joints, discs, ligaments, cervical muscles, and nerve roots may be injured, producing neck pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.


Anatomy and physiology

The hips, back, and trunk are the first body segments and joints to experience movement during a whiplash. Forward motion in these structures is accompanied by upward notion, which acts to compress the cervical spine. This combined motion causes the head to revolve backward into extension, producing tension where the lower cervical segment extends and the upper cervical segment flexes. With this rotation of the cervical vertebrae, the anterior structures are separated and posterior components including facet joints are severely compressed.

Cause of whiplash injury

Tackle from behind, e.g. football. Sharp collision with another athlete. Sudden stop of the vehicle while driving during a road traffic accident. Blow to the head, e.g. boxing.

Signs and Symptoms of whiplash or neck sprain

Pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulder or between the shoulder-blades. Ringing in the ears or blurred vision. Irritability and fatigue.

Complications if left whiplash unattended

Left untreated, whiplash injury can produce chronic symptoms of pain, inflexibility and loss of movement, along with the continuation or worsening of associated symptoms of fatigue, sleep loss, memory and concentration loss, and depression. Symptoms may also suggest more serious injury to the spinal vertebrae with potentially serious consequences.

Treatment for whiplash injury

  • Physiotherapy
  • Oral Medicine
  • Injection

Rehabilitation and prevention

The neck usually be immobilised with some form of brace, though early movement is usually encouraged to prevent stiffening. Low impact strength and flexibility training and rehabilitation should follow complete healing of the tendons, discs, and ligaments. Risk of whiplash may be minimised with protective gear as well as a thorough warm-up routine, though prevention in rough contact sports may not be guaranteed.

Long-term prognosis

The long-term prognosis for most whiplash injuries is good, given adequate care, though symptoms may persist and the neck may be prone to re-injury.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment with our doctor to treat your whiplash injury today.

Brief Outline of Neck Injury

Injuries to the neck can be serious, particularly in the case of broken or fractured vertebrae. Neck strains are less serious and far more common and involve injury to the muscles or tendons of the neck. Contusions are bruises to the skin and underlying tissue of the neck, usually the result of a direct blow.

Anatomy and physiology

The cervical spine is made up of seven vertebrae, which begin at the base of the skull (C1) and curve downward slightly as they reach the chest region and connect with the thoracic vertebrae (C7). Muscles running from the rib cage and collarbone to the cervical vertebrae, jaw, and skull appear on the front or anterior cervical area. The posterior cervical muscles cover the bones along the back of the spine and make up the bulk of the tissues on the back of the neck.


Cause of Neck Injury

Sudden twisting of the neck. Serious fall. Direct blow to the neck, in the case of contusion.

Signs and Symptoms

Head, neck, and shoulder pain. Crackling sensation in the neck. Loss of neck strength and mobility.

Complications if left neck injury unattended

Injuries to the neck are potentially serious and deserve prompt medical attention. Long-term paralysis, loss of motion and coordination, calcification and osteoporosis are possible side-effects. In the case of fracture, the injury can lead to parapelgia and is also sometimes fatal.

Treatment for neck injury

Treatment for neck injury will depends on the severity of the injury.

Treatment ranges from conservative like oral anti-inflammatories, injection or physiotherapy. Otherwise, we may need to explore surgical option.

Rehabilitation and prevention

For neck strains, immobilisation for a period of weeks with a brace may be recommended. In cases of fracture, the broken vertebrae may be surgically pinned together with screws and the patient may be placed in a neck cast. Physical therapy following healing will attempt to re-establish range of motion, flexibility, and strength. Helmets or other athletic headgear as well as attention to proper technique can help prevent some neck injuries.

Long-term prognosis

Outcomes for neck injury vary widely depending on the nature and severity. In cases of fracture, the prognosis is generally worse with injuries occurring higher up the cervical spine.

Neck strains and contusions are far less serious and their outcome – given proper treatment and rehabilitation – is usually good. Severe strains in which the muscle-tendon-bone attachment is ruptured may require surgical repair.

Call (+65) 64712 674 (24 Hour) to make an appointment to see our orthopaedic specialist regarding your neck injury today.

What are ganglions?

Ganglions are small sacs (cysts) filled with fluid that often appear as bumps on the hands and wrists. They can also develop on feet, ankles, knees, or shoulders. A ganglion can grow out of a joint capsule, which surrounds the joint, or a tendon sheath, which covers the tendon (the fibers connecting muscle to bone). Ganglions aren’t cancerous.

Most people with ganglions notice that the bumps appear suddenly. Bumps may be very small or bigger than a cherry. Ganglions may get bigger as activity increases and more fluid collects in the sac. They may also shrink and may break and go away on their own.

Anyone can get a ganglion: adults between 15 and 40 years old are most likely to be affected.Children don’t usually have ganglions, but if they do, the ganglion will very likely go away without any treatment.

What causes ganglions?

Experts don’t know the exact cause of ganglions. They may be linked to:

  • Inflammation or irritation of the tendon sheath or joint capsule.
  • An injury.
  • Overuse or repetitive motions, such as those you do at work.
  • Arthritis. A common type of ganglion called a mucous cyst ganglion occurs with arthritis of the hands. It usually affects the joint nearest the fingernail.

What are the symptoms if I have a Ganglion?

Ganglions are usually small, painless bumps and do not cause other symptoms.

Sometimes the bump can be tender to the touch, or there can be pain that gets worse with activity or pressure. If the ganglion puts pressure on nearby nerves, you may have tingling in your fingers, hand, or forearm. Some ganglions can weaken your grip or affect joint motion.

How are ganglions diagnosed?

A ganglion can usually be diagnosed based on how it looks and where it is. Your doctor will also feel the bump and shine a light alongside it. If the bump is a ganglion, the light usually shines through it.

You may need an X-ray if your doctor suspects arthritis or injury. Some of the fluid found in the ganglion may be removed and examined. In rare cases, an MRI or ultrasound may be done.

How are they treated?

Ganglions usually don’t need treatment, and they often go away on their own. But treatment may be needed if the ganglion causes pain or other symptoms, limits what you can do, affects your bones or ligaments, or gets infected. You may also want treatment if you’re bothered by how the bump looks.

Your doctor may treat a ganglion by:

  • Giving you a wrist or finger splint to wear.
  • Draining fluid from the bump with a needle (aspiration).
  • Injecting hydrocortisone into the joint.
  • Doing surgery to remove it.

With or without treatment, ganglions may come and go and may get bigger or smaller.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to treat your Ganglion today.