Brief Outline of Plantar Fasciitis
Plantar fasciitis is an injury to the plantar fascia that connects the heel to the base of the toes. Pain is usually felt in the heel especially upon rising from an extended rest. Walking or running, especially on hard surfaces and with tight calf muscles, makes an athlete more susceptible to this injury, as does being female and/or overweight. High or fallen arches and incorrect footwear can lead to this condition as well.
Anatomy and Physiology for Plantar Fasciitis
The plantar fascia, also called plantar aponeurosis, is a tough fibrous tissue that originates from the tuberosity of the calcaneus to the metatarsals heads, and is important for supporting the longitudinal arch of the foot. When the calves are tight, this tissue is under stress. Repetitive ankle movement, especially when restricted by tight calves, can irritate this tissue at the calcaneus.
Cause of Plantar Fasciitis
Tight calf muscles and running on hard surfaces. Improper or ill-fitting footwear. Arch problems. Training errors. Overuse. Hyperpronation. Poor flexibility of the triceps surae (gastrocnemius, soleus, and planataris) and Achilles tendon.
Signs and Symptoms of Plantar Fasciitis
Pain at the heel bone, which is worse after exercise or when rising from an extended rest. Pain may diminish during exercise, but return after the activity is stopped.
Complications If Left Plantar Fasciitis Unattended
Plantar fasciitis that is left unattended can lead to chronic pain that may cause a change in walking or running gait. This in turn can lead to knee, hip and lower back problems.
Immediate Plantar Fasciitis Treatment
Rest. Ice. Ultrasound. Anti-inflammatory medication.
Clinic’s Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis
Anti-inflammatory injection. Shockwave therapy. Physiotherapy.
Long-term Prognosis for Plantar Fasciitis
Most people with plantar fasciitis recover completely after a few weeks to a few months of treatment. Injections of corticosteroid may be necessary in cases where the fascia doesn’t respond to early treatment.