Brief Outline of Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an injury to the plantar fascia that connects the heel to the base of the toes. Pain is usually felt in the heel especially upon rising from an extended rest. Walking or running, especially on hard surfaces and with tight calf muscles, makes an athlete more susceptible to this injury, as does being female and/or overweight. High or fallen arches and incorrect footwear can lead to this condition as well.

Anatomy and Physiology for Plantar Fasciitis

The plantar fascia, also called plantar aponeurosis, is a tough fibrous tissue that originates from the tuberosity of the calcaneus to the metatarsals heads, and is important for supporting the longitudinal arch of the foot. When the calves are tight, this tissue is under stress. Repetitive ankle movement, especially when restricted by tight calves, can irritate this tissue at the calcaneus.

Pantar Fasciitis

Cause of Plantar Fasciitis

Tight calf muscles and running on hard surfaces. Improper or ill-fitting footwear. Arch problems. Training errors. Overuse. Hyperpronation. Poor flexibility of the triceps surae (gastrocnemius, soleus, and planataris) and Achilles tendon.

Signs and Symptoms of Plantar Fasciitis

Pain at the heel bone, which is worse after exercise or when rising from an extended rest. Pain may diminish during exercise, but return after the activity is stopped.

Complications If Left Plantar Fasciitis Unattended

Plantar fasciitis that is left unattended can lead to chronic pain that may cause a change in walking or running  gait. This in turn can lead to knee, hip and lower back problems.

Immediate Plantar Fasciitis Treatment

Rest. Ice.  Ultrasound. Anti-inflammatory medication.

Clinic’s Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis

Anti-inflammatory injection. Shockwave therapy. Physiotherapy.

Long-term Prognosis for Plantar Fasciitis

Most people with plantar fasciitis recover completely after a few weeks to a few months of treatment. Injections of corticosteroid may be necessary in cases where the fascia doesn’t respond to early treatment.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to Treat Plantar Fasciitis Today.

Brief Outline of Stress Fracture

Stress fractures in the foot are usually a result of repetitive impact to the bones of the feet. Running or jumping on the hard surfaces, changing the duration or distance of workouts too quickly or fatigued muscles that can no longer absorb shock can lead to small cracks in the bone. The small cracks accumulate and become a stress fracture.

Anatomy and Physiology Stress Fracture

A stress fracture can occur in any of the bones of the foot but are generally seen in the metatarsals. The heel bone, or calcaneus, can also become fractured with improper footwear or as the result of an old injury that has gone untreated. The bones subjected to repetitive trauma develop minor cracks and then these cracks build on each other leading to a stress fracture. A weak point in the bone from a previous injury or due to bone rebuilding can lead to stress fractures under normal stress conditions.

Cause of Stress Fracture

Repetitive trauma to the bones of the foot. Weakened area of bone due to previous injury or other condition. Muscle fatigue, making the muscles ineffective shock absorbers.

Signs and Symptoms of Stress Fracture

Pain at the site of the fracture. Pain with weight bearing, with inability to walk in severe cases. Swelling may be noted over the fracture site. Some loss of foot function may be noted.

Complications If Left Stress Fracture Unattended

More serious stress fracture including a complete break in the bone may occur if left unattended. Swelling and inflammation may cause blood flow and nerve problems in the foot. Pain may increase to the point of disability and inability to walk.

Immediate Treatment for Stress Fracture

RICE (Rest, Ice. Compression, Elevation). Anti-inflammatory medication or injection.

Long-term Prognosis for Stress Fracture

Stress fractures will usually heal completely and have no lingering effects if rest and rehabilitation are used. The fracture site should heal to become stronger than it was originally. Only in severe cases where the bone fractures completely and does not respond to rest and immobolisation, will surgery required.

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Brief Outline of Morton’s Neuroma

A neuroma is a tumour, growing from a nerve, or made up largely of nerve cells and nerve fibres. Morton’s Neuroma involves the plantar nerve, and is characterised by pain on the plantar side of the foot. When pressure is applied to the forefoot area, the bones may pinch the nerve causing pain, burning, or even loss of sensation to the affected area. Running (especially sprinting), walking, and jumping all place repetitive stress on this area and have the potential to cause Morton’s neuroma. Foot deformities, underlying foot abnormalities, tight-fitting shoes that compress the foot, can also lead to this condition.

Morton's Neuroma

Anatomy and Physiology of Morton’s Neuroma

The plantar nerve supplies the third and fourth toes, and runs between the metatarsl heads. When the bones are subjected to pressure due to tight-fitting shoes or a pronated foot, the plantar nerves become compressed between the metatarsal heads, which causes inflammation and swelling.

Cause of Morton’s Neuroma

Repetitive stress or trauma to the ball of the foot, such as with running, walking, or jumping. Pronation. Wearing footwear that compresses the foot. Injuries to the metatarsals of the third and fourth toe.

Signs and Symptoms of Morton’s Neuroma

Pain and/or burning sensation in the affected area. Possible loss of sensation in the third and fourth toes. Possible numbness, tingling, or cramping in the forefoot. While weight bearing in shoes, agonising pain on the lateral side of the foot may be present, which is relieved when going barefoot.

Complications If Left Morton’s Neuroma Unattended

If left unattended, a neuroma may lead to permanent nerve damage. Permanent loss of sensation to the toes may also result. Pain will increase without treatment, eventually leading to disability.

Immediate Treatment for Morton’s Neuroma

Anti-inflammatory medication, or injection. Rest and ice.

Long-term Prognosis for Morton’s Neuroma

When treated properly, a neuroma should recover completely without any long-term effects. The longer the injury goes untreated, the higher the possibility for lingering effects. Surgery may be required if the regular treatment does not lead to recovery.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to treat your Morton’s Neuroma today.

Brief Outline of Bunions

Tight-fitting or ill-fitting shoes can lead to swelling and enlarging of the joint at the base of the big toe, known as a bunion. Injury to the big toe or abnormal stress on the outside of the toe can also lead to bunions. Women are likely to get bunions than men, due to the tendency of females to wear tighter fitting shoes. A bunion-like condition may develop on the lateral (small toe) aspect of the foot called a bunionette.


Anatomy and Physiology for Bunions

Bunions are typically found on the medical aspect of the metatarsophalangeal joint, which connects the toe and foot. When tight-fitting shoes, an injury, or other condition causes pressure on the toe (forcing it inward), the joint becomes inflamed and enlarged. There is inflammation of the bursa overlying the medical aspect of the first metatarsal head. This causes the toe to move laterally toward the second toe, sometimes even sliding under it, forming the hallux valgus deformity. A painful bump develops on the outside of the toe joint, which leads to additional pain and inflammation.

Cause of Injury for Bunions

Tight-fitting shoes. Untreated injury to the big toe. Unusual pressure to the outside of the first toe. Pronation of the foot.

Signs and Symptoms of Bunions

Bump at base of the big toe. The first toe may move laterally toward the second toe. Redness and tenderness in the affected area. Pain with walking.

Complications if Left The Bunion Unattended

Bunions left unattended may lead to further complications such as bursitis, difficulty walking, arthritis, and chronic pain. The first toe may angle toward the second toe causing the second toe to move out of alignment.

Immediate Treatment for Bunions

Anti-inflammatory medication or injection.

Long-term Prognosis for Bunions

Bunions respond to treatment quite well. In cases where the bunion has advanced or it does not respond to treatment, surgery may be needed to correct the condition.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to treat your bunion today.

Brief Outline of Hammer Toe

Hammer toe get its name from the hammer-like or claw-like appearance of the affected toe. The toe bends upward at the first joint and down at the second causing this appearance. Ill-fitting shoes and muscle or nerve damage to the flexor muscle group may result in this condition. Corns and/or calluses may also develop due to the pressure of the toe against the shoes.

Hammer Toe

Anatomy and Physiology of Hammer Toe

The proximal phalanx of a toe (most often that of the second toe) is extended, and the second and distal phalanges are flexed, forming a hammer-like appearance. This causes pressure on the ball of the foot and causes the mid-toe area to rub against the top of the shoe. This could lead to corns or calluses. Diabetes, stroke, arthritis,  or prior injury could also cause an unnatural flexing of the toes.

Cause of Hammer Toe

Ill-fitting shoes. Muscle or nerve damage in the flexor muscle group.

Signs and Symptoms of Hammer Toe

Hammer-like appearance of the toe. Pain and difficulty moving the toe. Corns and calluses may develop on the affected toe.

Complications If Left Hammer Toe Unattended

When left unattended, hammer toe can lead to other problems such as arthritis, painful corns and calluses, and flexor tendinitis. It may also lead to a complete inability to extend or straighten the toe.

Immediate Treatment for Hammer Toe

Switch to roomier shoes. Anti-inflammatory medication or injection.

Long-term Prognosis for Hammer Toe

Surgery may be required if the toe has become inflexible and other treatments do not work.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to treat your hammer toe today.